Seminar on Special Topics in Applied Linguistics
August 15, 2012 Leave a comment
Hi everyone! I’m just so happy that our topic got a two thumbs up from our professor Dr. Milagros Villas. The topic is all about research titles in applied linguistics. The author sought to answer what are the differences in the titles of research articles and theses in applied linguistics. The study was conducted somewhere in Iran.
I find the toipic intriguing for as a novice researcher I have a lot of question on how to formulate a somewhat professional like title. Also I wanted to know what’s the use of colon and the like in a title. Anyway, for further information regarding the study, read the research below. I’m sure you’ll also find this study useful.
Writing titles in applied linguistics:
A comparative study of theses and research articles
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
Title is the proof of identity of any academic work without which the work would hardly find
space in the intended discourse community. Despite studies on their nature, the generic characteristics
of titles have not been adequately considered. Realizing the need for more empirical investigation,
this study focused on the titles of theses and articles in Applied Linguistics. Assuming that titles of
theses and articles have little in common as far as their communicative purposes are concerned, the
study took into account as many as 1871 thesis and article titles. The titles were categorized according
to their varying structural constructions and informativeness. The thesis titles appeared to be more
informative while the article titles demonstrated greater variation in their structures. The marked
differences in writing titles and the dearth of accepted norms for title writing suggest provision of
more comprehensive guidelines would be of benefit to researchers.
Keywords: thesis; research article; title; informativeness; scope
Title, as a message system designed to organize perceptions and create structures
of meaning, has attracted the interest of many researchers. Investigations into titles are
important in that a title is the first point that captures the reader’s eye, the point from
which he may decide whether a text is worth reading or not. This makes title writing a
crucial step in documenting research. Despite their succinctness, titles are “serious
stuff” (Swales, 1990, p. 224). They intrigue the reader and lure him into reading the
Taiwan International ESP Journal, Vol. 2: 1, 29-54, 2010
article itself (Haggan, 2004, p. 298).
If only attractiveness mattered in title formation, it would be of little help to the
readers, because it would not contain any clue to what the article is about. Furthermore,
if a title is not informative, it cannot be indexed in the proper databases (Haggan, 2004).
An appropriate title is assumed to have three requirements. To fulfill its functions, a title
should indicate the scope of the research, introduce the topic of the research, and be
self-explanatory (Swales & Feak, 1994, p. 205). These three aspects contribute to
the informativeness of a title. Having these requirements, a title might attract the
right audience; otherwise, it loses its effectiveness and hence its addressees. Lester
(1993, p. 138) mentions that a clearly expressed title is like a good thesis sentence that
can guide one’s writing and keep the researcher on course. He presents a number of
strategies for writing a title, all of which in one way or another indicate the topic of the
research, as well as the information through which the reader can decide on the
usefulness and relevance of the research article (RA) to his own area of interest.
A title should also be as brief and as short as possible. Economy and conciseness
are the features of a title to which some editors devote a section in their journals, in
which contributors are provided with some general notes and guidelines regarding the
title and its length (Haggan, 2004; Soler, 2007; Yakhontova, 2002).
Title is the proof of identity of any academic piece of work without which it would
find no space in the intended discourse community. In the last three decades, there has
been a growing interest in titles and their characteristics in different genres, for example,
dissertations (Dudley-Evans, 1984), research articles (Goodman, 2000; Haggan, 2004;
Haig, 2004; Soler, 2007; Wang & Bai, 2007), review papers (Soler, 2007), conference
presentation abstracts (Yakhontova, 2002), and lectures (Gelbes, 2007).
Different publications have distinct writing conventions (determined by different
academic settings, authors, and audiences) and peer review processes. For example,
article writers should follow the guidelines and strategies that are set forth by the journals
as the essential prerequisite for publishing their articles, whereas thesis titles are subject
to review only by supervisors and referees of the theses. Titles in these genres, therefore,
despite their common features, echo different purposes and exhibit divergent characteristics.
The problem of composing a title may be worse for graduate students because there are
few guidelines for writing a thesis title, and so students might generalize the suggestions
for RA titles to writing titles for their theses. Moreover, considering the huge task of
writing a thesis, graduate students might take writing a title for granted.
Contemporary studies on title writing have focused, especially, on article titles or
conference presentation titles, and they have made generous contributions to these two
(Goodman, Thacker, and Siegel, 2001; Yakhontova, 2002; Haig, 2004; Haggan, 2004;
Soler, 2007; Wang & Bai, 2007; Gelbes, 2007). These studies have, in general, pointed
to the generic peculiarity of titles, their syntactic structure, which is at the service of
economy or conciseness, and the authors’ construction of their ethos out of the choices
that are made available to them by the institutional context that they are attached to.
However, despite the attention given to culminating genres of graduate students
(Allison, Cooley, Lewkowicz,& Nunan, 1998; Belcher, 1994; Belcher &Hirvela, 2005;
Bitchener & Basturkmen, 2006; Bunton, 2005; Connor, & Mauranen, 1999; Dudley-
Evans, 1984; Kwan, 2006; Paltridge, 1997; Samraj & Monk, 2008; Shaw, 1991), the
study of the titles of theses does not share the same privilege. This is especially evident
in Applied Linguistics, and thus more empirical investigation seems to be needed in this
area. As a matter of fact, the requirements of a good article title suggested by Swales
and Feak (1994, p. 205), and the title writing strategies set forth by Lester (1993) may
also be applied to thesis titles. Though writing a thesis title may appear a narrow topic,
Dudley-Evans (1984) believes in a prescriptive approach to teaching titles to nonnative
speakers of English, by examining in depth the various aspects of the genre and drawing
Except for the work done by Dudley-Evans (1984) on writing dissertation titles, it
seems that no substantial work has considered the role of titles in graduate student theses.
The titles in Dudley-Evans’ (1984) program were chosen from the fields of Plant
Biology, Highway Engineering, Biological Sciences, and Electrical and Civil Engineering.
Grammatical analysis of the titles made evident that a nominal group with a head and a
qualifying group were the usual patterns in title formation.
Dudley-Evans, in addition, explains the step by step processes of forming
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
Master’s thesis titles that take place in a team consisting of a student, a language teacher,
and a subject lecturer. Swales (1990, p. 222) agrees with this step by step process of
title writing and points to the overarching goal of repairing
unfortunate titles or
them. In the team work, the above-mentioned title analysis was an important
means by which the students repaired the titles of their submitted projects, taking up
suggestions on title length, informativeness, generality, and the choice of words.
Previous studies have shown conflicting views as to what makes a title an effective
one. Almost all of these studies dealt with the inter-disciplinary variations of title
formation and neglected the generic differences of titles within a discipline. This study
aims to address a less charted area
—titles in theses and articles in Applied Linguistics.
I will inspect the structural configurations commonly found in each genre to see if they
meet the important requirements of informativeness. I hope that the study will help
students and those who wish to disseminate the findings of their own research in the
leading international journals, and offer them clues on effective title writing in academic
settings. The following questions, targeting informativeness and structural configuration,
are thus posed in this study:
1. Is structural configuration a distinctive feature between thesis and RA titles in
2. Are thesis titles more informative and self explanatory than RA titles in Applied
Taking into account the value of coding to “reduce a complex, messy, context-laden
and quantification resistant reality to a matrix of numbers” (Orwin, 1994, p. 140), I coded
the titles based on an amalgamation of syntactical units (e.g., phrases, sentences, or
compound constructions) earlier deployed by Haggan (2004), Soler (2007), and
Yakhontova (2002). The choice of syntactic analysis as the point of departure for title
investigation was motivated by the fact that titles are the only part of articles that are,
physically and linguistically, disjunct from the context, and this makes studying the
contextual functions of titles essential.
Semantically, the titles were analyzed based on their informativeness. General
classifying words describing actions (e.g.,
investigating, study, analysis, etc. ), indicating
results of the study (e.g., effect, impact, problems, etc.), or pointing to different aspects
of a study (e.g.,area, scope, topic, or method) are usually used to improve the
informativeness of titles. To preclude any problem of interpretation, these aspects were
defined based on current views in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) as follows:
1) Area:Mackey and Gass (2005) classify SLA research into different areas, namely,
formal models, processing-based models, interaction-based models, strategies and
cognitive processes, and sociolinguistic-based models, which might be explicitly
mentioned in an RA title.
2) Scope: The scope of Applied Linguistics has different domains such as
Language Teaching, Psycholinguistics, Language Learning, and Sociolinguistics that
are influenced by linguistic or learning theories, as well as by cultural or political issues
(Kaplan, 1980). Limitations are often imposed on the scope of the research in a title.
Sometimes, the title covers what takes place in the classroom and, at times, it includes
what happens in natural, untutored environments (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991).
3) Topic: The main focus of a research, the topic, should be narrow enough to be
dealt with in one particular study.
4) Method: The method is the way the research questions are investigated and the
hypotheses are tested. Historical, descriptive, and experimental methods are the three
major classes of research methods (Farhady, 1996).
2.2 Materials and Procedure
The dataset for this study comprised 997 article titles from the electronic versions
of six Applied Linguistics journals, namely,
Applied Linguistics (AL), English for
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
Academic Purposes (EAP) , English for Specific Purposes (ESP), English Language Teaching (ELT)
, International Journal of Applied Linguistics (IAL), and System (SYS)
across a span of eight years (2002-2009). These are considered the most popular and well-grounded journals, indexed in various journals and libraries and read by many researchers.
The second set of data included 874 MA and PhD thesis titles (between 2002 and (2009) in the same discipline from local Iranian universities (Islamic Azad University:Ahvaz Science and Research Branch (SRCA), Tehran Science and Research Branch
(SRCT), Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), University of Yazd (UY), University ofShiraz (US), University of Isfahan (UI), Al Zahra University (AZU), Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), and Shahid Chamran University (SCU)).
These universities are prestigious and accept a good number of MA and PhD candidates for postgraduate studies. Therefore, the theses written in these universities can be regarded as representative of theses with the above average quality written across the country. The choice of the most recent data for this study was to find the tendencies of the researchers for the current structures in title formulation in both genres.
The study aimed to provide quantitative and qualitative analyses of the titles in terms
of length, structural configurations, and informativeness. To guarantee the reliability of
analysis, 200 titles were randomly chosen and they were all analyzed quantitatively and
qualitatively by the researcher and an experienced applied linguist separately.
Intercoder reliability (0.98) ensured uniformity in the coding procedure and the rest of
the corpus was analyzed by the researcher himself. The final stage was the comparison
made between thesis and article titles to arrive at general trends in title formulation in
the two genres in focus.
3.1 Quantitative Analysis
The results of the word count are presented in Table 1, which provides basic
statistics for all the RAs and theses investigated. Hyphenated words were counted as a
single word by the computer. As can be inferred from the Table, in all instances, the
thesis titles were longer than the article titles. The average title length in the articles
(10.60) was closer to Haggan’s finding (9.9), as compared to Soler’s title length (7.98),
while the average length of the thesis titles was 14.09. The titles in the journal
the shortest average length. On the other hand, the shortest average length in the thesis
titles in Tehran Science and Research Branch (12.75) was greater than the average
length of the titles in the journal
ESP, which used longer average titles than journals.
The results of
t-test (t = 4.92; df = 13; tcrit = 2.160; P = .000) suggested a significant
difference between the titles in both groups.
Basic statistics of journals and universities
Total 164 997 10575 2 29 10.60
Total – 874 12318 3 37 14.09
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
As seen in Table 2, the authors of the articles in Applied Linguistics tend to use
compound constructions far more than any other grammatical construction. More than
half of the structures in the article titles were compound constructions consisting of
different syntactic units while only about one fifth of the thesis titles incorporated this
Structural constructions in thesis and article titles
Article titles Thesis titles
f (%) f (%) X
Critical value = 3.84
*Cell counts increased from 0 to 1 to allow for chi-square test.
f = Frequency
The occurrence of compound construction in the article titles was contrary to
Haggan’s (2004) and Soler’s (2007) findings, in which about one third of the
Linguistics titles in their data followed this structure. The
chi-square result showed a
significant difference between the two groups of titles in all constructions. The highest
result was attributed to compound constructions indicating that this structure
was a distinctive feature of the article titles. In contrast, the thesis writers showed more
tendencies toward the use of noun phrases (NP), which confirms Dudley-Evans’s
(1984) finding. Although NP was the second most frequent construction in the article
titles, its occurrence in about half the thesis titles made NP a distinctive feature, contrary
to Haggan’s (2004) finding where phrases were shown to have a greater contribution to
the formulation of article titles.
Other structures were rather variously realized in both groups of titles, with occurrence
of less than 10 percent. For instance, verb phrases (VP) in the article titles (9.22%) were
over three times the corresponding number in the thesis titles (2.97%), contrary to the
generalization made by Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad, and Finegan (2000) that VP
is the most frequent structure in academic writing. This view may hold true in academic
writing except for titles, in some if not all disciplines. It seems that, at least, Applied
Linguistics has to be excluded from this generalization. Prepositional phrases (PP) were
also occasionally used as the initiating phrase in the titles. The absence of single
sentence constructions (SEN) in the thesis titles and its few (1%) occurrences in the
article titles confirm Haggan’s (2004) finding regarding the Linguistics titles, but it
contradicts the generalization made by Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995), who believe in
the growing tendency toward the use of full sentence titles in all disciplines.
The dominant compound construction was NP/NP followed by VP/NP in both
datasets. Though several structures were entirely absent from the thesis titles, a closer
look at Table 3 reveals a greater diversity involved in the grammatical structure of the
article titles. For instance, the structural configurations such as NP/VP, SEN/NP,
NP/SEN, and VP/VP made important contributions (more than 12 % overall) to the
distribution of titles.
Another criterion in the analysis of the titles was informativeness. The distribution
of these aspects in the thesis and article titles is summarized in Table 4 which makes it
clear that different informativeness aspects of the research are realized more explicitly
in the thesis titles than the article titles.
Both groups of titles tend to set forth the topic and scope more than other aspects,
a point that researchers recommend as the prerequisites for an acceptable title (Goodman,
Thacker, & Siegel, 2001; Lester, 1993; Swales, 1990; Swales & Feak, 1994; Zeiger,
1991). The results of
chi-square confirmed the significance of the differences in relation
to all aspects of informativeness save for
method and action. Analysis of the data
revealed more informativeness associated with the thesis titles, which indicated that the
thesis titles incorporate more elements that reflect on various aspects of a study.
Table 5 also summarizes the overall
chi-square results of informativeness, suggesting
a statistically meaningful difference between the two datasets.
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
Structural constructions of compound titles
Article titles Thesis titles
f (%) f (%)
CLAU/NP 7 (0.70) – (-)
Research aspects of informativeness in thesis and article titles
Article titles Thesis titles
f (%) f (%) X
P < 0.05
Critical value = 3.84
ns Based on the defined critical value the chi-square amounts are not significant.
f = Frequency
Chi-square results of informativeness in thesis and article titles
2 df P
Informativeness 31.407 1 0.000
P < 0.05
Critical value = 3.84
3.2 Qualitative analysis
The first two examples that follow represent the longest and shortest titles in theses
and the next two examples display the article titles:
1. “The Writing of This Thesis Was a Process That I Could Not Explore with the
Positivistic Detachment of the Classical Sociologist”: Self and Structure in
Research Theses (EAP)
2. Bidirectional Transfer (AL)
3. The Effect of Four Different Modes of Presentation (Text-definition Alone,
Text-definition with Still-pictures, Text-definition with Instructional Video Clips, and
Text-definition with the Combination of Still-pictures and Instructional Video Clips) on
L2 Vocabulary Acquisition of EFL Learners ( AZU)
4. The Best-selling Translations (SRCT)
Title (1), the longest article title of the data, is a compound construction consisting of a
quotation which is likely to be a motivator followed by a noun phrase presenting the
topic (Self and Structure), scope (New Humanities), and the corpus (Research Theses). Title
(2), one of the shortest article titles, is an under-informative one, in that, like most short
titles, it is not self-explanatory and offers only the topic, so flouting the maxim of
quantity (Grice, 1975).
Title (3) is the longest thesis title including an NP with an embedded parenthetical
explanation which is apparently added to make it more self-explanatory but has made it
over-informative, a disadvantage in a title. Unlike the longest article title, the longest
thesis title contains repeated words. On the other hand, title (4), the shortest thesis title,
is again under-informative in that it provides the reader with no useful details about the
content. A vast array of structures was observed in the titles through which facts and
ideas were modified by different syntactic units. Below, an explanation of each structure
3.2.1 Sentence titles
In my data, a less preferred structure was the single sentence construction. As
illustrated in the following examples, a few article titles (e.g., title 5) were statements
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
indicating the general findings of the study while several others were Wh or Yes/No
questions in abridged or full forms (titles 6-8) dealing with the research focus. These
titles, despite their varying structures, imply that the contents of the papers contain
reasons for the problems posed in the titles by the use of “
What… for? ” in title (6),
…?” in title (7), and “…or…?” in title (8), whose answers are surely not a simple
Yes or No.
5. Transfer of Reading Comprehension Skills to L2 Is Linked toMental Representations of
Text and to L2 Working Memory. (AL)
6. What Do We Want EAP Teaching Materials for? (EAP)
7. Does Instruction Work for Learning Pragmatics in the EFL Context? (SYS)
8. EAP or TEAP? (EAP)
All sentence titles were stated in the present tense which “emphasizes the note of
confident optimism being projected by the writer that what he is reporting stands true
for all time or is not simply a one-off occurrence” (Haggan, 2004, p. 297). Few instances
of reporting the results in the article titles confirmed Haggan’s finding, implying that
results are to be discussed only in the text of the article itself. Interestingly, no thesis
titles were cast in this way.
3.2.2 Phrase titles
Phrases were predominantly realized in the thesis titles; however, their occurrence
as the second most frequent structure in the article titles cannot be neglected. Researchers
et al, 2000; Leech, 2000) believe that reduced structures are more common
in speech than written grammar, but in titles, they are the most frequent ones (Haggan,
188.8.131.52 Noun phrase titles:
The ability to compact information in an economical
way through various pre- and post-modifiers (Wang & Bai, 2007) makes NP more
informative and explanatory than other structures (Yakhontova, 2002), and a popular
one in titles of theses and articles. In line with the findings ofWang and Bai (2007), the
NP titles included uni-head, bi-head, and multi-head constructions. Past and present
participles, prepositional phrases, infinitives, and clauses are used as the postmodifiers
of the NPs, as in the article title (9) where “that clause” offers the topic and scope of the
9. Factors That Lead Some Students to Continue the Study of Foreign Language Past the
Usual Two Years in High School (SYS)
The titles with bi-head nominal groups consisting of two NPs connected by
, and vs.were also popular (10). This title is modified by an apposition which capitalizes
on the novelty of the investigation (Yakhontova, 2002, p. 86). NPs were also widely
used in the thesis titles but with a limited range of head nouns such as
effect, role, and
, as in title (11). Other titles used words denoting the method of study such
comparative, cross-sectional, and contrastive as is the case in title (12) which is
10. Attitudes and Strategies as Predictors of Self-directed Language Learning in an EFL
11. The Effect of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of
Iranian Learners of English (YZ)
12. A Contrastive Discourse Analysis of Lexical Cohesion as a Cohesive Device in English
& Persian (TMU)
184.108.40.206 Verb phrase titles:
Present participle, as the next most frequent structure
in both genres, is a way of increasing conciseness and attractiveness (Wang & Bai,
2007). A number of titles contained this form of VPs called
(Halliday, 1994), a structure used more in written language, by turning verbs into nouns,
as in the following examples derived from the international articles in the present study:
13. Enhancing Automaticity Through Task-based Language Learning (AL)
14. Addressing the Issue of Teaching English as a Lingua Franca (ELT)
Each verb in the VP titles indicates a different aspect. In title (13), the VP indicates
the result while in title (14) it implies the topic. By indicating actions in almost all cases,
the VP thesis titles showed less variation in their functions. Like the article titles, all the
VPs were present participle modified by prepositional phrases or infinitive clauses, as
in title (16). Wang and Bai (2007) state that infinitive clauses introduce a future action
and concisely indicate the nature of the research.
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
15. Investigating the Construct Validity of the FCE Reading Paper in the Iranian EFL
16. Using Concordances to Explore the Impact of Inductive and Deductive Instruction on
Teaching Grammar in EFL Classes (AZU)
220.127.116.11 Prepositional phrases:
Prepositional phrases were very common in both
genres as the postmodifying phrase which, according to Biber
et al., (2000), is a good
way of presenting information in the shortest possible way, but it was one of the least
common initiating phrases of the titles. Yakhontova (2002) used the term
to refer to prepositional phrases. Consider the following examples of article
titles from the present study:
17. Through the Looking Glass and into the Land of Lexico-grammar (ESP)
18. On the Historical Origins of Nominalized Process in Scientific Text (ESP)
Title (17) consists of two PPs, of which the second leads readers to the content,
whereas the other seems to be used to make the title more interesting. PPs might also
function as modifiers through which the scope of the topic is narrowed down, as in
title (18). Unlike the postmodifying PPs which make use of different prepositions,
almost all the PP thesis titles were initiated by
on (in a rare case toward was used).
Contrary to the PP in the article titles, almost in all the thesis titles the postmodifers
served the topic by presenting different aspects of the study (see title 19).
19. On the Possibility of Excluding Phonological Recoding from the Process of Reading
3.2.3 Compound titles
Haggan (2004) believes that compound constructions are the common type of
titles. The results showed that compound structures were more frequent and diverse in
the article than the thesis titles, in which the dash, hyphen, comma, colon, full stop,
exclamation point, and question mark are used to separate the different parts. Consider
the following article examples:
20. Language Play, a Collaborative Resource in Children’s L2 Learning (AL)
21. How Rude! Teaching Impoliteness in the Second-language Classroom (ELT)
22. Letters to the Editor: Still Vigorous after All These Years?: A Presentation of the
Discursive and Linguistic Features of the Genre (ESP)
Title (20) is a compound title whose two parts are complementary and linked by a
comma. In fact, this title would be a sentence if the punctuation mark were a verb. Other
titles have structurally independent parts, as in title (21), where an abridged sentence is
accompanied by a VP. In a few other titles (e.g. title 22), more than two parts shape the
As in the article titles, the most common compound title in the theses was the
combination of two NPs. However, less variation was detected in the punctuation in the
thesis titles, with colon being the most frequent. Titles with semicolon as the linking
device were rare (e.g. title 23) and, in a few titles, no punctuation was used; instead the
two parts were typed on two different lines.
23. Crosslinguistic Acquisition of Tens and Passive Constructions from a Generative
Perspective ; a Morphological Variability Study (UI)
The overarching pragmatic aim is to quickly inform readers of an article whether
or not the paper is relevant to their area of interest, and this can be effectively done in
the title. A good title should indicate the topic and the main point of the study in a clear
and concise way (Zeiger, 1991), so that it can be informative to readers. At the very
least, an article title should adequately describe the topic of the text that follows it.
A few instances of article titles with no clear indications of topic were seen (see
24-26) where the reader cannot make any sound assumption about the topic. Considering
the needs of readers in finding the required information in the shortest possible way,
writing ambiguous titles would not be very reader-friendly, because readers do not
usually decide on the topic by trial and error, and they would simply overlook these titles.
24. Looking Outwards, Not Inwards (ELT)
25. Facilitator Talk (ELT)
26. From Elegy to Ology (ELT)
A frequent feature in the article titles was using more than one topic, a general and
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
a more specific one, similar to what Swales and Feak (1994) suggest for presenting the
information content of the research in a title. Title (27) includes two topics where the
italicized term is the general topic and the one in bold is the more specific one.
Writing in Business Courses: An Analysis of Assignment Types, Their Characteristics, and
Required Skills (ESP)
28. Compared to the article titles, very few thesis titles contained two topics. Take the
following title where the general topic is narrowed down into three specific ones.
29. A Comparative Study of
Question Strategies in Testing Reading Comprehension:
and Infixing (SRCA)
Topic-method, as in (30), was a popular construction in the thesis titles. The topic
is a pivot part (italicized in the example) narrowed by other parts with different degrees
Ego Identity of Language and Language: A Comparative Study (SU)
The article titles with topic-method structure (e.g., 31) also limit their topics by a
prepositional phrase (bold in the example) presenting the scope of the study and adding
to their informativeness.
31. Writing Titles
in Science: An Exploratory Study (ESP)
A less frequent aspect in both groups is the area. Title (32) is an informative thesis
title where almost all aspects of the study, including even the less common aspects of
area (bold in the example) and method are explicitly presented. This aspect was rarely
included in the article titles.
A Cognitively-based Exploration of Language-switching in the Written Performances of
Iranian EFL Learners (UI)
About half of the thesis titles incorporated general classifying words in their initial
impact, role, relationship, effect, etc.) to indicate the results of the study.
Another frequent group of words indicated the actions taken by the researchers such as
, investigation, describing, and analysis. Some thesis titles even applied both of
them (33). This kind of title was also seen in only one article title (34).
33. The Study of the Relationship between Iranian EFL Students’ Expectations of Their
Teachers and Achievement Scores, Their Expectations and Self-evaluation; and Their
Achievement Scores and Self-evaluation (SRCT)
34. An Investigation of the Relationship between Forms of Positive Interdependence,
Social Support, and Selected Aspects of Classroom Climate (SYS)
Title (33) needs extra revision because of the unnecessary repetition misconstrued
as informativeness; furthermore, four occurrences of the function word
and is convincing
enough to repair it because function words are often omitted to enhance economy and
compactness. It seems that thesis writers commit themselves to the use of noun phrases
under any condition. Title (35) is an NP title with an embedded parenthetical PP that
could simply be separated by a punctuation mark to keep its informativeness.
35.‘The Relationship between Participants’ Role (In Learner-learner Vs. Teacher-learner
Interactions) and Speaking Skill Performance (SRCT)
Contrary to the diversity involved in the structure of the article titles, the results
indicated that thesis titles follow a fixed format, usually picked from earlier theses,
available to novice researchers, where these copies are stored. For example, most thesis
titles of one university were NPs beginning with either
the effect or the relationship. The
thesis titles of another university, on the other hand, tended toward the use of the action
An important difference between the article and thesis titles was the use of amusing
or pithy wordings in the article titles, a feature that was totally absent from the thesis
titles. The following example starts with a quoted sentence followed by different aspects
of the research which seem to be likely to make readers aware of the content.
36.“I’d Love to Put Someone in Jail for This”: An Initial Investigation of English in the
Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) Industry (ESP)
Contrary to Soler’s (2007) finding, that economy is a common feature of titles in
all genres and disciplines, the present study suggests the absence of this feature in
almost all thesis titles. Soler’s generalization is to some extent in line with my findings
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
regarding article titles but not thesis titles. Thesis supervisors, at least in Iran, are often
concerned about the information content rather than the size of the title. On the other
hand, article writers demonstrate their concern for the physical size of a title because
most journals set limitations on the number of words in a title.What seems to be lacking
in the existing literature on titles is that no possible reasons are offered for the length
differences across the two genres. Some researchers (e.g., Swales & Feak, 1994), however,
believe that title length is a disciplinary feature. The results of this study point to genre
differences emerging even within one discipline.
The difference in the length of titles lies at two ends of a continuum. At one end,
limitation is imposed on the number of words in a title due to the limited space available
to article writers, and, at the other end, in thesis titles, there is little to constrain length,
because the purpose is to enhance informativeness.
In addition, the audience and its size have an important influence on the conventions
of writing (Koutsantoni, 2006; Yakhontova, 2002); titles, as a part of academic writing,
cannot be excluded from this effect. In order to obtain membership of a discourse
community, writers use rhetorical strategies and conventions of the discipline to show
that they are aware of the expectations of the genres; otherwise, they would fail to fit
into that community. Thesis writers often write for national audiences of the same
linguistic background. They primarily address their thesis supervisors and advisors and
only secondarily other readers. Their concern is to convince the first party on the nature
and context of their work and to show that they are aware of the boundaries and variables
involved in it.
Article writers, on the other hand, are experts who address international audiences,
many of whom are professional informants in their own fields. This position might
“counterbalance the power and status asymmetries and give expert authors more room
to present themselves as experts and address gatekeepers as equals” (Koutsantoni, 2006,
p. 21), making article writers more confident about their claims and giving them more
courage to lend individual style to their titles through the use of less formal patterns.
This is not true of thesis writers who are required to be more formal and conservative in
presenting their claims, even in their titles, which might be the result of the perceived
distance, in terms of power and professional status, between thesis writers and their
supervisors. In fact, English proficiency and experience may be two important factors
that constrain the Iranian thesis writers’ ability to craft
creative titles. If supervisors and
other national audiences care more about informativeness, it may not be easy to
persuade thesis writers to work on the
creative aspect of titles.
The linguistic choices employed in title writing seem to be a generic peculiarity
(Haggan, 2004). The results of the present study also indicate that noun phrases are a
feature of thesis titles, a result which confirms the study by Dudley-Evans (1984), while
compound constructions are a characteristic of article titles which is in line with the
findings of Soler (2007). This leads one to conclude that the structural configuration
plays a distinguishing role between the two groups of titles and that structural variation
is most probably caused by genre influences. Genres as frames of
social action and
environments of learning
offer a special form to their members to interact with by
shaping their thoughts (Bazerman, 1997). Therefore, the titles of both genres may
possess distinct communicative purposes which are realized through a specific structure
for a specific community.
Titles, in one way or another, seem to reflect the contents of the research. But
content is more explicitly echoed in thesis than article titles. Explicitness is linked to
informativeness; that is, the more explicit a title, the more informative it would be.
Postmodifying prepositional phrases
—a characteristic of science research article titles
—are regarded as an appropriate strategy of being more explicit in
terms of reflecting on the content by the thesis writers. The article writers, on the other
hand, tend to apply both pre- and postmodifiers as a strategy of explicitness. Some of
these premodifiers were the unclear parts of compound constructions which were
illustrated by the postmodifiers or even left unmodified. Take the following example
where the title starts with an unclear part carrying no information as regards the content
of the study, which is then clarified in the next part of the title:
37. Tape it Yourself: Videotapes for Teacher Education (ELT)
When an article title begins with a premodifier, it creates a limbo in the reader’s
mind which is then disambiguated by the following part. This strategy is certainly a
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
distinguishing feature between article and thesis titles since it was rarely used in the
latter titles. Therefore, article titles tend to be more ambiguous compared to thesis titles
by the use of specific structures. However, to prove this genre peculiarity of the Applied
Linguistics article titles, more studies are required.
Quotations, as one of the widely used elements in article titles, despite their rather
uninformative appearances, serve different functions. When writers make use of quotations
in their titles, they lead their readers into a web of intrigue. Sometimes, as in the following
title, the quotation represents a part of the topic which is later dealt with in the paper.
38. “I Would Like to Thank my Supervisor”: Acknowledgements in Graduate Dissertations
Title (38) needs further specification because the scope of the study is not
mentioned. Some other article titles use intriguing elements that shroud ideas in figures,
such as analogies, idioms, metaphors, allegory, and proverbs (titles 39-43 respectively)
which are rarely discussed in the existing literature on titles. These elements function as
a conduit through which personal ideas are imparted. This way, the illocutionary meaning
of a title, besides the propositional content, is communicated, which brings one
common force, namely reading the paper, or at least scanning its content.
39. “It’s Like a Story”: Rhetorical Knowledge Development in Advanced Academic
40. Criteria for Re-defining Idioms: Are We Barking up the Wrong Tree? (AL)
41. In the Same Boat? On Metaphor Variation as Mediating the Individual Voice in
Organizational Change (AL)
42. Big Brother Is Helping You: Supporting Self-access Language Learning with a
Student Monitoring System (SYS)
43. “Just What the Doctor Ordered”: The Application of Problem-based Learning to EAP
In only one case, title (44), an idiom initiated a thesis title where the topic is
44. A Piece of Cake or a Hard Nut to Crack: Investigating Intermediate and Advanced EFL
Learners’ Performance on Different Tests of Idiom Type (UI)
Ambiguous expressions as a characteristic of article titles are either used as stand-alone
titles, (45), or followed by other parts functioning as clarifications to the enigma created
by the writer, to impress and arouse the readers’ curiosity. Even some titles, such as
title (46), started or ended with an esoteric non-English expression.
45. Looking Outwards, Not Inwards (ELT)
46. ‘Lego My Keego!’: An Analysis of Language Play in a Beginning Japanese as a
Foreign Language Classroom (AL)
Such titles might not meet the requirements of a good title suggested by different
scholars, but they are eye-catching enough to persuade the reader to scrutinize their
content, which might be the result of the interpersonal function communicated through
this kind of rhetoric. The proverbial or idiomatic frameworks and abridged sentences
which are a feature of spoken discourse make article titlesmore reader-friendly by establishing
a closer tie between the reader and the writer who, despite the physical distance, uses
more informal structures in deference to the interpersonal functions of titles. In contrast,
thesis writers report the results and rely on the propositional meaning at the cost of
establishing a rapport with the readers and the interpersonal functions of the titles.
Concerning the second research question, achieving informativeness bymentioning all
aspects of a study would be at the expense of losing economy and conciseness. This
would probably result in over-informativeness, violating the cooperative principle
(Grice, 1975) because one needs to present as much information as is needed in order
to keep to Grice’s maxims. Observing informativeness as an effective way of reflecting
on content, by offering the necessary information, while keeping economy and conciseness:
such is the ideal approach to title writing. The following example is a thesis title on the
discussion sections of research articles:
47. A Comparative Study of Research Article and Ph. D. Dissertation Discussion
Sections: Variations across Sub-disciplines of Applied Linguistics (SRCA)
Now, compare it with the following article title with a similar point of focus:
48. Communicative Moves in the Discussion Section of Research Articles (SYS)
Both titles are informative in terms of introducing the topic, but title (47) is more
informative since more angles of the research
—method, corpus, and scope—are
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
mentioned. It is asserted that titles that give more details, more accurately, better serve
the needs of readers in finding relevant information. But the question is: Should
informativeness be regarded as the only feature of an effective title? Economy and
informativeness are two features that have to be taken into account. To economize
means to have one eye on informativeness; that is, relative informativeness would be
enough for writing an effective article title, while this is not necessarily so for a thesis
title. In fact, economy and informativeness are incorporated with different degrees in
writing both kinds of title. Where economy is more important, then some salient information
from the title is removed, and where informativeness matters, then economy is partially
Some researchers (e.g., Zeiger, 1991) emphasize writing clear titles neglecting
other more important functions of titles, such as originality and humor, and their effect
on the advisory committees or journal gatekeepers responsible for the acceptance or
rejection of titles. More interesting titles, however, seem to receive more attention and
probability of acceptance. Thesis titles are free from this concern because they only
have to suit the supervisors and the examiners, who seem to care more about
The marked differences in writing academic titles and the dearth of accepted
standards for title writing (Soler, 2007) suggest there is room for provision of more
comprehensive guidelines to researchers.
5. Conclusion and implications
An in-depth understanding of titles is useful, because novice researchers might
experience difficulties inmeeting the title requirements of the genre in which they write.
It seems that supervisors take thesis titles very seriously and expect students to write titles
that explicitly reflect the content of the thesis with little creativity and innovation.
Therefore, in research writing courses, the syllabus should contain guidelines on title
writing through which students experience different structures and learn how to write
effective titles. The linguistic features of titles should be incorporated into academic
writing courses at postgraduate levels to prepare student researchers for participation in
the world of publication.
The title of any academic article mirrors its content and acts as a medium through
which the communicative purposes of a specific genre are conveyed. This mirror should
be clear enough to reflect what it is supposed to show. To serve this purpose, and in
order to learn the proper ways of title writing, one should be aware of the genre, scope,
area, and context of the research. Furthermore, enough information is needed about the
variables under study and their relationship, so that one can consider and then effectively
recapitulate all aspects of the research at one glance. This awareness, if developed in
class, can be a source of inspiration for novice writers. One way through which title
writing can be enhanced is by analyzing article titles of leading journals, published as
they are under strict requirements and after careful scrutiny. This would make them a
reliable source for student researchers.
Graduate students should be encouraged to express a personal voice in their thesis
title even though their conventional genres may not use personal language. It might be
the right time to free thesis writers from the cliché frames of titles and let them practice
more creativity. It might take the genre community quite a while to accept such changes
but these changes, if made for the better, would eventually be accepted. Partly, this
change might be made by teachers who will affect the way in which a particular genre
changes. Sometimes, a tiny change in an aspect might be the starting point of a revolution
in the genre, or even in the field.
Despite its appeal, the present study is not without its shortcomings. To identify the
general trends in title formulation, a more comprehensive corpus is needed
covers a wider range of titles from writers with different linguistic backgrounds. Nationality
and mother tongue probably influences title choice; this could be a research avenue in
its own right. The choice of only six Applied Linguistics journals also makes us less
confident about the generalizations made on title formulation in this discipline. A wider
range of journals and amore limited time spanwould therefore offer amore representative
sample for title investigation.
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010
Allison, D., Cooley, L., Lewkowicz, J., & Nunan, D. (1998). Dissertation writing in action: The development of a
dissertation writing support program for ESL graduate research students.
English for Specific Purposes, 17, 199-217.
Bazerman, C. (1997). The life of genre, the life in the classroom. In W. Bishop & H. Ostrum (Eds.),
Genre and writing
(pp. 19-26). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Belcher, D. (1994). The apprenticeship approach to advanced academic literacy: Graduate students and their mentors.
English for Specific Purposes, 13
Belcher, D. & Hirvela, A. (2005). Writing the qualitative dissertation: What motivates and sustains commitment to a
English for Academic Purposes, 4, 187-205.
Berkenkotter, C. & Huckin, T. N. (1995).
Genre knowledge in disciplinary communication: cognition/culture/power.
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (2000).
Longman grammar of spoken and written English.
Bitchener, J. & Basturkmen, H. (2006). Perceptions of the difficulties of postgraduate L2 thesis students writing the
Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 4-18.
Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.
English for Academic Purposes, 4, 207-224.
Cadman, K. (1997). Thesis writing for international students: A question of identity?
English for Specific Purposes, 16,
Connor, U. & Mauranen, A. (1999). Linguistic analysis of grant proposals: European union research grants.
Specific Purposes, 18
Dudley-Evans, T. (1984). A preliminary investigation of the writing of dissertation titles. In G. James (Ed.)
classroom: Methodology, materials, expectations
(pp. 40-46). Exeter: Exeter Linguistic Studies.
Farhady, H. (1996).
Research methods in applied linguistics. Tehran: Payame Noor University.
Gelbes, S. R. (2007). Titles and ethos: Academic face and disciplines variety [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 10
International Pragmatics Conference. Göteborg, Sweden 8-13 July, 2007.
Goodman, N. W. (2000). Survey of active verbs in the titles of clinical trial reports.
British Medical Journal, 320,
914-915. Retrieved onDecember, 12, 2008 from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi? artid=27333
Goodman, R. A., Thacker, S. B., & Siegel, P. Z. (2001). A descriptive study of article titles in peer-reviewed medical
Science Editor, 24, 75-78.
Grice, H.P., (1975). Logic and conversation. In A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (Eds.)
The discourse reader (pp. 76-88).
New York: Routledge.
Haggan, M. (2004). Research paper titles in literature, linguistics and science: Dimensions of attractions.
Haig, D. (2004). The inexorable rise of gender and the decline of sex: Social change in academic titles, 1945-2001.
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33
Halliday, M. A. K. (1994).
An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Kaplan, R. (1980).
On the scope of applied linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publications.
Koutsantoni, D. (2006). Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic
literacy and relations of power.
English for Academic Purposes, 5, 19-36.
Kwan, B. S. C. (2006). The schematic structure of literature reviews in doctoral theses of applied Linguistics.
for Specific Purposes, 25
Larsen-Freeman, D. & Long, M. H. (1991).
An introduction to second language acquisition research. Hong Kong:
Longman Group UK Limited.
Leech, G. N. (2000). Grammars of spoken English: New outcomes of corpus-oriented research.
Language Learning, 50
Lester, J. (1993).
Writing research papers: A complete guide. New York: Harper Collins.
Mackey, A. & Gass, S. M. (2005).
Second language research: Methodology and design. New Jersey: Lawrence
Erlbaum Association, Inc.
Orwin, R. G. (1994). Evaluating coding decisions. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.)
The handbook of research
(pp. 139-162). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Paltridge, B. (1997). Thesis and dissertation writing: Preparing ESL students for research.
English for Specific
Samraj, B. & Monk, L. (2008). The statement of purpose in graduate program applications: Genre structure and
English for Specific Purposes, 27, 193-211.
Soler, V. (2007). Writing titles in science: An exploratory study.
English for Specific Purposes, 26, 90-102.
Shaw, P. (1991). Science research students’ composing processes.
English for Specific Purposes, 10, 189-206.
Swales, J. (1990).
Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swales, J. & Feak, C. (1994).
Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills. Ann Arbor: University
of Michigan Press.
Wang, Y. & Bai, Y. (2007). A corpus-based syntactic study of medical research article titles.
System, 35, 388-399.
Yakhontova, T. (2002). Titles of conference presentation abstracts: a cross-cultural perspective. In E. Ventola, C.
Shalom & S. Thompson (Eds.),
The language of conferencing (pp. 277-300). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Zeiger, M. (1991).
Essentials of writing biomedical research papers. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
TIESPJ, Vol. 2: 1, 2010